By Gregory B. Milton (auth.)
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Additional resources for Market Power: Lordship, Society, and Economy in Medieval Catalonia (1276–1313)
38 M A R K ET POW E R The entrance of a contract in the protocol itself acted as proof of authentication, with the parties, guarantors, and witnesses identified clearly. The scribes worked at the direction of the official notary, but did most of the writing themselves. Taking notes from the parties involved in transactions, they recorded the contracts in the protocols and served as witnesses to the terms. Many different scribal hands exist in each protocol, ref lecting the various scribes at work in the scribania.
The Other Lords: Milites, Castellans, and Clergy The lords of Queralt and family were not alone in exerting power in the region. 54 Taking their surnames from the castle-villages they controlled, the Biure, Montesuperbo, zaCirera, and zaGoda families were relatively independent of their overlords. The heads of these lineages held the castellanies of their patrimonies. Other individuals such as Bernat Zanou and Galcerandus de Mirailles, each also identified as miles, derived their rank more directly from their position in the lord of Queralt’s retinue.
It is possible that these were set and understood according to local custom, and therefore, they did not need to be recorded. However, the complete absence of anything distinguishing labor service suggests that labor service in a feudal sense was no longer a major element of dues within the lordship of Queralt. 30 It is possible that fifty years later even this minimal service had been commuted into other dues. The property transactions recorded by the notaries, primarily from the villa and termino of Santa Coloma itself, clearly demonstrate that the lords of Queralt benefitted in a variety of ways from the holdings under their authority.