By Hellmut G. Karge and Jens Weitkamp
Molecular Sieves - technological know-how and Technology covers, in a entire demeanour, the technological know-how and know-how of zeolites and all comparable microporous and mesoporous fabrics. Authored by means of popular specialists, the contributions are grouped jointly topically in this sort of manner that every quantity of the ebook sequence offers with a particular sub-field. quantity four covers the characterization of molecular sieves with the aid of crucial spectroscopic options (Characterization I), i.e. IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, UV-VIS Spectroscopy, X-ray absorption, photoelectron and M?ssbauer Spectroscopy. conception, scan and alertness in chosen examples are mentioned.
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Additional resources for Characterization I (Molecular Sieves)
Scheme of the principal design of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR)  advantage), advantageous especially for measurements in the far-infrared region; (iii) show often a better resolution, (iv) are characterized by a higher wavenumber accuracy (Connes’ advantage) and (v) allow a very rapid scanning of the spectra. , diffusions, reactions; cf. also Sects. 4). A great variety of cells appropriate for transmission IR spectroscopy on zeolites and related materials has been developed.
If modes are both IR- and Raman-active, there are usually large differences in intensities between the corresponding bands in the two spectra. For theses reasons, IR and Raman spectra provide complementary rather than redundant information, and it is desirable to use the two techniques in combination. The second fundamental difference between the two complementary techniques is that the Raman effect originates from a scattering rather than from an absorption process (vide supra). Framework vibrations of zeolites are generally characterized by low-scattering cross sections, and this property may be criticized as making Raman spectroscopy unsuitable for zeolite research.
In fact, it consists of a combination of an FTIR spectrometer with a light microscope, which renders possible the adjustment of a very small area of the sample with respect to the IR beam, so that IR spectra can be obtained from single crystals or very small powdered (polycrystalline) samples. In fact, for experiments with the “IR microscope” a particular cell is required with appropriately small dimensions and a heating device. Moreover, it should be possible to operate the cell under high vacuum and especially as a flow-through microreactor.