By Fabrice Baudoin

This booklet goals to supply a self-contained creation to the neighborhood geometry of the stochastic flows. It reviews the hypoelliptic operators, that are written in Hormander's shape, by utilizing the relationship among stochastic flows and partial differential equations. The e-book stresses the author's view that the neighborhood geometry of any stochastic stream is set very accurately and explicitly by means of a common formulation often called the Chen-Strichartz formulation. The average geometry linked to the Chen-Strichartz formulation is the sub-Riemannian geometry, and its major instruments are brought during the textual content.

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**Extra info for An Introduction to the Geometry of Stochastic Flows **

**Sample text**

These vector fields agree at the origin with ( -ga iT „ k). To make our approach essentially frame independent, it is important to relate the horizontal lifts of the same Brownian motion with respect to two different basis. 10 Let cp :Rd --- Rd be a vector space isomorphism. Let us denote b* the horizontal lift of B in the group GN(Rd) with respect to the basis ((p(Di),•••,(P(Dd)). Then there exists a unique Carnot group isomorphism Tp :GN(R d ) --4 GN(R d), such that for every t > 0: A' = Tv,(B:).

Since g is not definite positive, the associated geometry is not Riemannian but sub-Riemannian. 1 Let c = (ct,w) be an absolutely continuous curve [0, 1 1 G2 (Rd). It is a horizontal curve if and only if (s) = c(s) A cl (s). Proof. that The curve c is horizontal if and only if there exist A1, Ad such c/(s) = EAi(s)Di(c(s)). ti=1 Since a D•(x) = 8si 1 a 1 -2 E wx-1,7 2 E j*i a :7 , 1 < i < d, we obtain, first, by an identification of the coefficients in front of the Ar 's Ai(s) = c(s). The identification of the terms in front of the 4,77 's leads exactly to cu i (s) = —21 a(s) A cx' (s). *

9. We deduce that G can be identified with G itself, so that it acts tranG, g g(x) sitively on G. It means that for every x E G, the map G is surjective. 3 In the above proof, the horizontal curve constructed to join two points is not smooth. Nevertheless, it can be shown that it is always possible to connect two points with a smooth horizontal curve (see [Gromov (1996)] pp. 120. The Carnot-Carathéodory distance between x and y and denoted dg (s, y) is defined as being the infimum of the lengths of all the horizontal curves joining x and y.