By Loring W. Tu
Manifolds, the higher-dimensional analogs of tender curves and surfaces, are primary gadgets in smooth arithmetic. Combining features of algebra, topology, and research, manifolds have additionally been utilized to classical mechanics, basic relativity, and quantum box theory.
In this streamlined advent to the topic, the idea of manifolds is gifted with the purpose of assisting the reader in achieving a speedy mastery of the fundamental subject matters. via the top of the ebook the reader will be in a position to compute, not less than for easy areas, the most easy topological invariants of a manifold, its de Rham cohomology. alongside the best way the reader acquires the data and talents worthwhile for extra examine of geometry and topology. The needful point-set topology is integrated in an appendix of twenty pages; different appendices evaluate evidence from actual research and linear algebra. tricks and strategies are supplied to a few of the routines and problems.
This paintings can be used because the textual content for a one-semester graduate or complicated undergraduate direction, in addition to via scholars engaged in self-study. Requiring simply minimum undergraduate prerequisites, An Introduction to Manifolds is additionally a superb starting place for Springer GTM eighty two, Differential types in Algebraic Topology.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Manifolds
Show that the k-linear function Sf is symmetric. 15. )f . Proof. )f. 16 (The alternating operator). If f is a 3-linear function on a vector space V , what is (Af )(v1 , v2 , v3 ), where v1 , v2 , v3 ∈ V ? 6 The Tensor Product Let f be a k-linear function and g an -linear function on a vector space V . Their tensor product is the (k + )-linear function f ⊗ g defined by (f ⊗ g)(v1 , . . , vk+ ) = f (v1 , . . , vk )g(vk+1 , . . , vk+ ). 17 (Euclidean inner product). Let e1 , . . , en be the standard basis for Rn and let α 1 , .
2) is 26 3 Alternating k-Linear Functions 1 ! (sgn σ )cg(vσ (1) , . . , vσ ( ) ) = cg(v1 , . . , v ). σ ∈S Thus c ∧ g = cg for c ∈ R and g ∈ A (V ). The coefficient 1/(k! ) in the definition of the wedge product compensates for repetitions in the sum: for every permutation σ ∈ Sk+ , there are k! permutations τ in Sk that permute the first k arguments vσ (1) , . . , vσ (k) and leave the arguments of g alone; for all τ in Sk , the resulting permutations σ τ in Sk+ contribute the same term to the sum since (sgn σ τ )f (vσ τ (1) , .
X n is none other than the dual form dx i on Rn . , ωp ∈ Ak (Tp Rn ). Since A1 (Tp Rn ) = Tp∗ (Rn ), the definition of a k-form generalizes that of a 1-form in the preceding section. 29, a basis for Ak (Tp Rn ) is dxpI = dxpi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxpik , 1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ik ≤ n. Therefore, at each point p in U , ωp is a linear combination ωp = aI (p) dxpI , 1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ik ≤ n, and a k-form ω on U is a linear combination ω= aI dx I , → R. We say that a k-form ω is C ∞ on U if all the with function coefficients aI : U − ∞ coefficients aI are C functions on U .