By Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

This booklet provides a entire evaluate of the surprising advances visible in atomic physics over the past 50 years. The authors clarify how such development used to be attainable by way of highlighting connections among advancements that happened at various occasions. They speak about the recent views and the recent examine fields that glance promising. The emphasis is put, no longer on unique calculations, yet quite on actual rules. Combining either theoretical and experimental concerns, the e-book might be of curiosity to quite a lot of scholars, lecturers and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

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**Advances in atomic physics : an overview**

This e-book offers a finished evaluation of the superb advances visible in atomic physics over the last 50 years. The authors clarify how such development used to be attainable by way of highlighting connections among advancements that happened at assorted instances. They speak about the hot views and the hot examine fields that glance promising.

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5in 26 ourbook Advances in atomic physics: an overview Ω(t) (a) τ ti ta tb Ω(t) T τ ti tf t (b) τ ta tb tf t Fig. 5 (a) Single pulse of width τ applied at time ta . (b) Sequence of two identical coherent pulses with the same widths applied at two different times ta and tb , and separated by an interval T. exhibits resonant variations centered on ω0 − ωL = 0, with a width on the order of 1/τ (see Fig. 6(a)). The smaller τ , the larger the resonance. This is an illustration of the time-frequency uncertainty relation.

22) 2M is the recoil kinetic energy of an atom initially at rest after the absorption of a photon. This simple calculation shows that in a resonant absorption process the frequency ω of the absorbed photon differs from the atomic frequency ω0 by the Doppler shift 6 k · vin and the recoil shift ωR = Erec / . If we consider an ensemble of atoms in thermal equilibrium at the temperature T , their velocities vin are distributed according to the Maxwell-Boltzmann law. This gives rise to a distribution of the Doppler shifts having a Gaussian shape of width ∆ωD ≃ kL (kB T /M )1/2 .

The field is conveniently described as a fluctuating field described by its time correlation functions. This description is similar to that used for analyzing relaxation processes induced by a random perturbation. It allows for a simple introduction of the notion of transition 2 Because of the wave packet spreading, one could think that this approximation does not hold for all times. In fact, the relevant characteristic length of an atomic wave packet is not its spatial extent, but the coherence length, which is a constant of the motion for a free particle.