By Yayi Wei
This ebook is a accomplished advisor to complicated strategies and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is a massive textual content for these new to the sector in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to increase their figuring out of this most up-to-date know-how. The publication can be utilized as path fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers interested in the manufacture of built-in circuits. It offers options for choosing severe fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion tactics to make sure greater functionality and decrease defectivity at cheaper price. This publication additionally comprises sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the face up to development to lessen function sizes and line-edge roughness. eventually, it describes the new improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- strategy Steps within the song- withstand Leaching and Water Uptake- touch perspective of Water on face up to Stacks- Topcoat and withstand for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and illness aid ideas- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer expertise- face up to lessen and Trim methods- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of withstand styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)
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Extra resources for Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189)
46 Chapter 2 As described in previous sections, surfactant rinses have been introduced to reduce line collapse or blob defects. Apparently, it is impractical to implement two separate surfactant rinses, due to capital equipment, software costs, and reduced throughput. 36 These bifunctional surfactants help to meet two goals simultaneously, further justifying their use in standard IC processing. Furthermore, new types of surfactant rinses have been designed to reduce the line-edge roughness. 6 193-nm Immersion-Specific Track Process In addition to the coating, baking, and development steps associated with resists and BARCs, 193-nm immersion lithography requires additional unique process steps: 1.
1(b) shows a typical process flow in the coating module. However, not all of the steps in Fig. 1(b) are necessary for a specific coating process. After the wafer is loaded on the spin table, the first process step is a pre-wet. A solvent nozzle moves to the wafer center and dispenses the solvent while the wafer spins at a low speed. Before the solvent becomes dry, the material (BARC, resist, or topcoat) is dispensed. The pre-wet helps to carry the material to the wafer edge, promoting better coating uniformity.
First, two resist-coated wafers are exposed at the best focus as a function of dose (energy meander). One wafer is rinsed with a pure DI water rinse process, while the other is rinsed with surfactant-containing DI water. With increased dose, the CDs decrease and their aspect ratios increase. At a certain point, line collapse starts, as labeled in the darker gray in Fig. 23. With the surfactant rinse process, the line collapse occurs at a much higher dose. , NAR ≡ nominal resist thickness/(measured line CD)(pitch)).