By S. Y. Lee

Study and improvement of excessive strength accelerators begun in 1911.

(1) improvement of excessive gradient dc and rf accelerators,

(2) success of excessive box magnets with first-class box quality,

(3) discovery of transverse and longitudinal beam focusing principles,

(4) invention of excessive energy rf sources,

(5) development of ultra-high vacuum technology,

(6) attainment of excessive brightness (polarized/unpolarized) electron/ionsources,

(7) development of beam dynamics and beam manipulation schemes, comparable to beam injection, accumulation, sluggish and speedy extraction, beam damping and beam cooling, instability suggestions, laser-beam interplay and harvesting instability for top brilliance coherent photon source.

The affects of the accelerator improvement are evidenced by way of the numerous ground-breaking discoveries in particle and nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed topic physics, biology, biomedical physics, nuclear drugs, clinical treatment, and business processing. This publication is meant for use as a graduate or senior undergraduate textbook in accelerator physics and technological know-how. it may be used as preparatory path fabric in graduate accelerator physics thesis study. The textual content covers ancient accelerator improvement, transverse betatron movement, synchrotron movement, an creation to linear accelerators, and synchrotron radiation phenomena in low emittance electron garage earrings, creation to big themes corresponding to the unfastened electron laser and the beam-beam interplay. consciousness is paid to derivation of the action-angle variables of the section area, as the transformation is critical for knowing complicated themes comparable to the collective instability and nonlinear beam dynamics. each one part is by means of workouts, that are designed to enhance thoughts and to resolve lifelike accelerator layout difficulties.

Readership: Accelerator, high-energy, nuclear, plasma and utilized physicists.

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**Sample text**

2a). 2). The focusing functions K z , I<, are periodic functions of the longitudinal coordinate s. Thus Eqs. 32) are Hill’s equations with periodic boundary conditions. The solution of Hill’s equation satisfies the Floquet theorem, to be discussed in next section. 1 1. In the Fkenet-Serret coordinate systeni (2,9, i ) ,transverse rriagnetic fields are B1 1 - 1 aA, + z / p az - I _ _ _ _ _ 1 ’ B 1 = - 1 8A, + z / p i)z . Derive Eq. 28) from the Hamiltoriiari of Eq. 19). 2. Derive Eq. 28) through ttie following geometric argument.

Kerst and R. Serber, Phys. Rev. 60, 53 (1941). Because of this seminal work, the transverse oscillations of charged particles in linear or circular accelerators are generally called betatron oscillations. I l l . ACCELERATOR APPLICATIONS 27 15. Ion sources are indispensable to all applications in accelerators. For electron beams, there are thermionic sources, rf gun sources, laser-driven electron sources, etc. Charged ~~ ion beams are usually drawn from a spacecharge ion source a t zero initial velocity.

Veksler in 1945. g. the race track microtron (RTM), the bicyclotron, and the hexatron. 13) where A E is the energy gain per passage through the rf cavity, B is the bending dipole field, X,f is the rf wavefength, and n is an integer. This resonance condition simply states that the increase in path length is an integral multiple of the rf wavelength. Some operational microtrons are the three-stage MAMI microtron at Maim, Germ a n ~ , *and ~ the 175-MeV microtron at Moscow State University. Several commercial models have been designed and built by Scanditron.